Psychology comes from the English language pscychology. Pscychology word comes from the Greek language (Greek), ie from the root word psyche, meaning soul, spirit, soul and logos meaning science. So, etymologically means the science of psychology of the soul.
Understanding of psychology as a science of psychology is still used when people are or are part of the philosophy, even in our literature in psychology 50s are commonly used as a synonym of psychology. Now with a variety of reasons (eg the emergence of psychological connotations that directly investigate the soul) the term mental science is not used anymore.
Shifts or changes in the understanding of the course consequential on the object of psychology itself was, of course, based on the development of the thinking of the interested persons. Bruno (Shah, 1995: in detail the proposed terms of psychology in three parts, which in principle are related. First of psychology is the study of the spirit. The psychology is the science of mental life. Third psychology is the science of knowledge about the behavior of organisms.
The first notion is the definition of the most ancient and classical (historical) associated with the philosophy of Plato (427-347 BC) and Aristotle (384-322 BC). They assume that human consciousness associated with stepping. Therefore, the study of human consciousness and mental processes are also a part of the study of the spirit.
When psychology away from philosophy as a parent and become an independent science in 1879, when William Wundt (1832-1920) founded the psychology laboratory, removed from the spirit of studies in psychology. experts, among them William James (1842-1910) so that a second opinion declared that psychology as a science of mental life.
The third notion put forward J.B. Watson (1878-1958) as a radical figure who is not satisfied with the definition, then he would define psychology as a science of behavior (behavior) of organisms. In addition, Watson itself invalidate (assuming no) the existence of spirits and mental life. The existence of spirits and the internal life of man according to Watson and his friends can not be proven because it does not exist, except in mere hayalan. Thus we can say that the psychology of behaviorism is a flow that is not science-minded souls.
To mediate the understanding that emerged earlier opinions expressed by other experts, including the Crow & Crow. According to psychology is the science which studies human behavior, namely, human interaction with the surrounding world (humans, animals, climate, culture, etc..
Understanding the psychology of conformity with the fact that currently exist, namely, that the psychologists generally emphasize the investigation of human behavior that is physical (pasikomotor aspect) and spiritual nature (cognitive and affective). Psychomotor behavior (intention sphere) is open, such as talking, sitting, walking, etc.., While the cognitive and affective behavior (domain copyrights and domains flavors) are closed, such as thought, conscience, feeling, etc..
Based on the above notions can be concluded that psychology is the science of human behavior, good knowledge of both obvious and invisible.
Linguistics is the study of scientific language (Kridalaksana, 1982: 99). In line with the above opinion suggests Martinet (1987: 19) argued that linguistics is the scientific study of human language.
In more detail in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Nikelas, 1988: 10) stated Linguistics is the study of human speech including the units, the nature, structure, and modification of language 'linguistics is the study of speech humans include unit-unit, the nature of language, structure, and language changes. "
From the above opinion can be concluded that Linguistics is the science of language characteristics. Language itself is used by humans, both in speaking and writing and understood by humans either in listening or reading. Based on the understanding of psychology and linguistics at the previous description it can be concluded that psycholinguistics is the study of language behavior, good behavior or behavior that does not seem apparent.
For more details, regarding the following psycholinguistic notion put forward some definitions psycholinguistics.
Aitchison (Dardjowidojo, 2003: 7) argues that psycholinguistics is the study of language and Minda. In line with the opinions above. Field (2003: 2) suggested psycholinguistics explores the relationship Between the human mind and language 'psycholinguistic discuss the relationship between the human brain with language'. Minda or brain operates when there is language usage. Therefore, Harley (Dardjowidjojo, 2003: 7) argues that psycholinguistics is the study of mental-mental processes in language usage.
Before using the language, a language user obtained first language. In this regard, Levelt (Marat, 1983: 1) argued that psycholinguistic was a study about the use and acquisition of language by humans.
Kridalaksana (1982: 140) also believes the same as stating that psycholinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and behavior and the human intellect and language skills can be obtained.
In the process of speaking a process of understanding and producing utterances, in the form sentences. Therefore, Emmon Bach (Tarigan, 1985: 3) argued that psycholinguistic is a science that investigates how the actual speakers / users of language shape / build sentences of that language.
In line with the above opinion Slobin (Chaer, 2003: 5) argued that psycholinguistic try to describe psychological processes that take place when someone say the sentences he had heard at the time of communication and how humans acquired language skills. In detail Chaer (2003: 6) argue that psycholinguistic tried to explain the nature of language structure, and how that structure is obtained, used at the time of speaking, and at the time to understand the sentences in pertuturan it.
Essentially in a process of communication activities to produce and understand speech. In this regard, Garnham (Musfiroh, 2002: 1) suggested Psycholinguistics is the study of a mental Mechanisms That nake it possible for people to use language. It is a scientific discipline Whose goal is a coherent theory of the way in Which language is understood and Produce 'Psycholinguistics is the study of mental mechanisms that occur in people who use language, both at the time to produce or understand utterances'.
Hopefully, this understanding can be useful Psycholinguistics, Thank you.